Type 2 Diabetes in Youth

Type 2 Diabetes in children and adolescents is an emerging epidemic within the last 20 years. Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children and adolescents; about 151,000 people below the age of 20 years have diabetes (CDC, 2009). There has been an increase in the amount of younger people, including teenagers that have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. According to the CDC website, type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, although still rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, particularly in American Indians, African Americans, and Latino Americans.

Type 2 diabetes is rising in American kids, especially African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans. Children are at risk if they are overweight or have a family history of diabetes. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999-2000 estimated the percentage of children and adolescents in the United States who are overweight or obese is over 15%, which in return in contributing to the epidemic. Being overweight in early adolescence may put children at risk for developing heart and blood vessel disease and type 2 diabetes even before they become teenagers (Messiah, 2008).

Based on 2002–2003 data, about 3,700 youth were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes annually (CDC, 2007). When diabetes occurs during childhood, it is assumed to be type 1 diabetes. This is usually considered the norm in children and adolescents. The epidemic of obesity, low level of physical activity due to video games and more indoor activities among young adolescents as well as exposure to diabetes in utero, can all be major contributors to the increase in type 2 diabetes during childhood and adolescence. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents already appears to be a growing problem among U. S. children and adolescents.

Type 2 diabetes affects different ethnic groups but it is more commonly seen in non-white groups. American Indian youth have the highest prevalence. The Center for Disease Control (2007) estimates that in the 15-to-19-year age group, the current prevalences were 50. 9 per 1000 for Pima Indians from Arizona; 4. 5 per 1000 for all U. S. American Indian populations; 2. 3 per 1000 for Canadian First Nation people from Manitoba. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in people younger than 20 years of age in the U. S. for 2007 was approximately 186,300 people younger than 20 years have diabetes (type 1 or type 2). This represents 0. percent of all people in this age. Type 2 diabetes is still rare in children younger than 10 years old but still does occur in this age group. The most important intervention that nurses can do is to teach parents and children the importance of diet and exercise since studies have shown that being overweight and sedentary lifestyles are linked to the early onset of type 2 diabetes. There are many new programs being advertised for encouragement of exercise and an active lifestyle, such as the NFL movement for an active generation. The American Diabetes Association (2004) holds diabetes camps throughout the country.

At these camps, children can learn many different educational topics such as: insulin injection techniques, insulin pump use, blood glucose monitoring, recognition and management of hypo/ hyperglycemia and ketosis, insulin dosage adjustment based on nutrition and activity schedules, sexual activity and preconception issues, carbohydrate counting, diabetes complications, lifestyle issues, especially related to weight control and exercise for type 2 diabetes, new therapies and problem-solving skills for caring for diabetes at home versus camp. *Amber- this sentence is TOO long. Take some of the things you listed out.

If they are very important to your paper… Just make another sentence. These camps are only for children and adolescents that already have a diagnosis of diabetes type 1 or 2. The diabetes camps also give the children a feeling that they are not alone in this disease. The camps show them that there are many other children dealing with the same issues they are. Also, there is a website for children with diabetes which is filled with research, resources, facts and FAQ’s. There is an online community for children and their families who are dealing with diabetes. (http:// www. childrenwithdiabetes. com/).

The American Diabetes Association is an organization that advocates for children with diabetes, some of the issues they are currently involved in on the federal level is the FIT Kids Act which is the fight against childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes by encouraging public schools to offer enough high-quality physical education . The Eliminating Disparities in Diabetes Prevention, Access and Care Act will enhance public education and support culturally appropriate health promotion and prevention programs, continue research into the causes of these disparities and improve treatment of diabetes in affected populations (ADA, 2004). Amber- I have no idea what this sentence is saying… try and break it up into two sentences. We as nurses need to educate children and parents about the importance of physical activity and normal weights. Type 2 diabetes has a greater prevalence in families with a history of diabetes; therefore we need to target these families for education. Also, we need to advocate for our patients when we suspect type 2 diabetes, since this is a new epidemic physicians do not always think to consider type 2 diabetes in the younger generations. Long term complications are common in type 2 diabetes.

Some of these complications include heart disease, stroke, neuropathies, renal failure, gastro paresis, retinopathy, amputations and many others. It is our job as nurses to help prevent or decrease the severity of some of these long term complications that are commonly seen. The treatment for type 2 diabetes is the same as it would be for adults — diet and exercise along with hypoglycemic medications. Therefore, education needs to be given to the patient as well as the family on these topics. References: American Diabetes Association. (2006). Diabetes care at diabetes camp. Diabetes care, 29. 6-58. Retrieved from http://care. diabetesjournals. org/content/29/suppl_1/s56. full Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2009). Diabetes project. Retrieved from http://www. cdc. gov/diabetes/projects/cda2. htm Center for Disease Control. (2007). National Diabetes Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www. cdc. gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2007. pdf Mesiah, S. (2008). Weight Problems Increase Risks for Young Adolescents. The Journal of Pediatrics, 153. 215-21. Retrieved from http://www. diabetes. org/diabetes-research/ summaries/weight-problems-increase-risks-for-young-adolescents. jsp