Globalization has affected about every facet of world in the twentieth and twenty-first century. The new moving ridge of engineering for illustration has contributed in doing the universe a smaller topographic point and the rise of transnational corporations ( MNCs ) has led to negative environmental effects in some host states. These assorted effects of globalization make it complex to specify globalization. Therefore, globalization can either be positive, negative or fringy.
This study will determine the assorted types of globalization and place their impacts thereby placing the also-rans of globalization. In finding if globalization is good or non, it has to be broken down by placing the assorted types as evaluation globalization as a whole will be biased. Globalisation is more like a procedure ; it is non inactive as it changes with clip. As pointed out by Held, ‘Globalisation can be best understood as a procedure or set of procedures instead than a remarkable status ‘ ( Held et al, 1999 ) . It is a procedure that has grown from the twentieth century until the present.
The term ‘globalisation ‘ swept through the twenty-first century and is going more popular in the twenty-first century as it straight affects the hereafter. With the different positions on globalization, it is non an easy undertaking to specify globalization. However, the definition by Anthony Giddens suits the tone of this study. He describes globalization as ‘the intensification of world-wide societal dealingss which link distant vicinities in such a manner that local occurrences are shaped by events happening stat mis off and frailty versa. ‘ ( Giddens,1990 ) . These links can be seen in the political, cultural and economic facet of a state which are the chief countries that this study will cover. Held and McGrew keep a similar position on globalization when they define it as ‘the broadening, intensifying and rushing up of worldwide interconnection. ‘ ( Held & A ; McGrew. Pg1 ) .
Although there are many parts of globalization, the focal point will be on the three chief types of globalization which have been of nucleus importance from the twentieth century boulder clay present. These are the political, economic and cultural facets of globalization. This does non intend that these are the lone types of globalization but they encompass the impact that is being felt from globalization today.
The 20th and twenty-first century has seen an addition in planetary issues which have made the universe a smaller topographic point. Ranging from planetary civilizations to international concern, more chances are coming up for states to be linked with each other. Out of this pandemonium and confusion as to what is go oning, globalization has been placed at the head of planetary issues. This study will analyze how globalization has affected the states and if it is good to them. The assorted countries of globalization will be identified and eventually, the also-rans of globalization will be pointed out.
2.1 Types of Globalization
Globalization can non be discussed without analyzing the types and their assorted impacts on the universe economic system. It can be argued that some types of globalization are good to a peculiar part of the universe while the other type may non be a benefit to them. Harmonizing to Schirato and Webb, ‘globalisation is the ‘name ‘ that is frequently used to denominate the power dealingss, patterns and engineerings that characterize and have helped convey into being, the modern-day universe. ( Schirato and Webb,2003. ) . They define globalization as a tool that has ‘helped ‘ the present universe we are populating in. There are statements nevertheless as to how globalization has helped the universe. Some might state that globalization has led to the devastation of national civilizations and heritage.
2.1.1 Economic Globalization
Economic globalization can be described as a procedure that has led to economic integrating of states by presenting free trade and foreign direct investing ( FDI ) among other factors. This integrating is with the purpose of doing the universe a planetary market place. Economic globalization started with international trade which gave rise to international concern. Economic globalization has increased from the 20th to 21st century due to a rise in FDI and the handiness of more free trade zones. Economic globalization comprises the globalization of production, markets, competition, engineering, corporations and industries.
Looking at the positive effects of economic globalization, it has provided employment chances which have come about by the rise in transnational and multinational administrations. MNCs have provided new occupation chances for the development and less developed states. This in bend has increased the criterion of life among assorted local communities. Coming to the international degree, there is more entree to new markets ; free trade between states has provided the opportunity for home-grown industries are able to vie in the international market in so making increasing their opportunities for foreign direct investing.
On the other manus, economic globalization has widened the income spread between the rich and the hapless. Kaplinsky describes a cardinal significance of poorness as ‘relative poorness ‘ which he describes as the ‘gap in incomes between states ‘ . ( Kaplinsky,2005 ) . Harmonizing to Wade globalization might hold led to the turning inequality in the universe. He illustrated this clearly in the bubbly glass form of inequality between the universe ‘s rich and hapless. ( Wade,2001 ) .
CHAMPAGNE GLASS PATTERN BETWEEN THE RICH AND THE POOR
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( Wade,2010 )
With the consequences shown supra, the also-rans of economic globalization are largely developing economic systems who most of the clip open up their economic sciences for investing at the cost of their environment. The desire to make better and vie on the international scene makes them vulnerable to environmental catastrophes. Examples can be seen in instances like Shell Nigeria and the changeless rise of perspiration store labour non merely in the 3rd universe states but besides in UK. A recent instance was brought to public visible radiation by The Times of Amazon workers working under rough conditions to run into the quotas set for them.
Economic globalization is seen as the development of the 3rd universe. Infant industries in these developing states can non vie with multinationals on a immense graduated table. The illustration is given of Unilever Ice-cream which led to the closing of many little companies when it was opened. As Schirato and Webb reference, ‘for some globalization means freedom, while others see it as a prison. For some it means prosperity, while for others it guarantees the poorness of the underdeveloped universe ‘ . This goes on to demo that people ‘s position on globalization differ. Some countries are a benefit to some while others see it as a job. Snar states that ‘there are some facets of globalization that most will hold are good or bad ‘ .
The Role of Transnational Organisations
TNCs are now regarded by many including some of the earlier critics, as indispensable agents of development, advancing the integrating of developing states into the emerging web of globalised production and therefore heightening their efficiency and growing. ( Chang,2003 ) .
ImageExports in the wide three
2.1.2 Political Globalization
Another signifier of globalization which has led to a deterritorilazation of states is political globalization. Political globalization has led to the creative activity of a universe authorities which regulates the relationships among authoritiess and guarantees the rights originating from societal and economic globalization.
Administrations such as the United Nations ( UN ) and World Trade Organisation ( WTO ) have helped to maintain some authoritiess in cheque. Issues such as human rights within states are handled on an international graduated table so authoritiess are careful in taking roseola determinations that will do negative reactions globally. Snarr and Snarr besides province that ‘the attendant mutuality and shared prosperity among states may beef up planetary cooperation and maintain international peace. ‘ ( Bruce E. Moon from Snarr and Snarr,2008. Pp 95 )
Despite the cheques and balances placed on authorities by external administrations, the govenments lose liberty overtime and this is summed up by Potter who lists the dangers of globalization including:
Worldwide, corruptness is on the addition and more hard to restrict,
There is an of all time increasing polarization of wealth.
Capital and multinational corporations have more power than authoritiess.
( Potter,2000. P 4-5 )
2.1.3 Cultural Globalization
‘Culture can be understood as the order of life in which human existences concept significance through patterns of symbolic representation. ( Tomlinson,1999. Pg 18 ) . Cultural globalization has led to a loss of national civilization. There is now an Americanized civilization and a term known as McDonalidzation. When the universe becomes a liquescent point. Example, the American civilization – people from all round the universe are being Americanised
‘Globalization lies at the bosom of modern civilization ; cultural patterns lie at the bosom of globalisation. ‘ ( Tomlinson,1999. Pg. 1 ) .
‘Culture, a modern tool, applied to the planetary context in which it emerged, generates an essentialization of the universe, the formation of a constellation of different civilizations, cultural groups or races, depending upon the historical period, and the professional individualities of the identifiers. ‘ ( Featherstone et Al, 1995. Pp 81 )
Acculturation – exchange of cultural characteristics that result when groups of single holding different civilizations come into uninterrupted first manus contact ; the original cultural spiels of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinguishable. ( Kottak 2007 )
Five dimensions of planetary cultural flows as ethnoscapes, technoscapes, finanscapes, mediascapes and ideoscapes.
2.2 Losers of Globalization
Are the also-rans merely in 3rd universe states? What about the hapless in developing and developed states? Loss of occupation chances because of concerns traveling their companies where they can acquire inexpensive labor. Economic, political, cultural and societal loss. How MNCs have affected the manner some states live and operate concerns. Examples Shell in Nigeria and Bhopal catastrophe in India.
It is deserving adverting that globalization has besides had an impact on the environment which we are all also-rans in. The Copenhagen Summit was put in topographic point to cover with this. In this country, we as human being are all also-rans in globalization. The rise in industries and the changeless demand to run into the demands of the turning universe population has led to the hurt of our environment. Global sourcing is at the cost of the environment ( Kaplinsky,2005. Pp 252 ) . There is an increse in planetary conveyance which emits tonss of carbondioxide into the environment. An illustration of this is the Exxon-Valdez oil spillage in Alaska during the 1990s. Increased energy ingestion and planetary heating which we all suffer from. In this instance, we are all also-rans of globalization because planetary warming inadverently affects us all.
Based on this study, it is apparent that there is no definite positive or negative reply on globalization. It is good to some extent to states, administration and people but the damaging effects can besides be seen on the environment, some authoritiess and a big figure of people as we see from the income spread between the rich and the hapless.