Sklar et Al ( 1985 ) note that France despite its official place has ever considered Western Sahara an built-in portion of Morocco and farther provinces that since 1975 all consecutive Gallic authoritiess have ne’er hidden their resistance towards the independency of Western Sahara which may fall under the influence of Algeria. Harmonizing to France the independency of Western Sahara is seen as likely to weaken the Moroccan Kingdom which is used to function the involvement of France ( Zoubir, 1999 ) . Whitfield ( 2007 ) further provinces that beyond the Western Sahara part the struggle has generated other effects for illustration it has affected the dealingss between France and Algeria every bit good as between Spain and on one manus Morocco and on the other manus Spain and Algeria.
Harmonizing to Zoubir ( 1999 ) France has opposed strongly the independency of Western Sahara and argues that holding another province which will be under the influence of Algeria will non portend good for the part. Since 1990s the jobs confronting Algeria have preoccupied France and France fears the same jobs could stop up in Morocco. France has ever tried to assist the Kingdom of Morocco remain strong since they believe that leting the jobs of Algeria spill over to Morocco will hold annihilating branchings. They have hence helped the Moroccans to detain the referendum by beef uping the place in the UN Security Council.
Relationss with Morocco
France has provided to the land of Morocco economic, military and political support while seeking to estrange Algeria. They have signed of import economic understandings with the land and the authorities has recent clip has decided to cut down the Maroc debt. The Gallic policy toward Morocco has been consistent and it considers Morocco as a rampart against the spread of extremist Islamism in the part. Polisario on the other manus elicits small sympathy from France and as a affair of fact France has been carrying other African states to halt back uping Polarisio although they have been unable to make so to Algeria in exchange for fiscal and economic assistance. Despite the resistance and maneuvering by France the chauvinistic cabals of the Algerian armed forces have continued to back up Polisario ( Zoubir, 1999 ) .
Relationss with Morocco
Ohaegbulam ( 2004 ) observes that although the UN have claimed it has campaigned for the released of the human rights militants, Hilary Clinton has stressed that there will be no alteration in the United states policy and that US senators have signed a missive that endorses Moroccan occupation.. During the cold war the US allowed the business of Morocco in the Western Sahara district. AfricaFocus ( 2010 ) observes that although the US does non oppose right to self- finding of people but due to geopolitical considerations it has been back uping the Morocco place. During the late 1980s the US was back uping the independency of the Western Sahara but in 2003 it supported the Baker ‘s program where the Western Sahara was to hold a referendum under which the western Saharans were to bask liberty for a period of five old ages before keeping a referendum to find their self-government. At this clip the US promised Algeria and Polisario that if they accepted the Baker ‘s program it was to enforce a solution in the UN Security Council. However the US was pushed to renegue on on its promise since it feared that this could hold aggravated the rift with France over the issue of Iraq plus it has feared the veto power from France.
The Obama disposal has been switching from the liberty proposal. For illustration when Obama wrote to King Mohamed he ne’er mentioned the liberty proposal and this can merely be interpreted as a reversal of the US policy toward the Western Sahara. When she was in Marrakesh and was asked whether the US had shifted its policy towards the Western Sahara conflict Hillary Clinton responded by stating that the Obama disposal had non shifted from the policy alternatively merely like the Bush ‘s disposal they were reaffirming the policy T chapeau was inherited from the Clinton ‘s disposal. During the hungriness work stoppage of Haidar who was a human right militant in Western Sahara the US was instrumental in deciding the instance and displayed a tougher base toward Morocco and this enabled the return of the militant to Western Sahara. There has been increased support among the US senators of Morocco ‘s appropriation of Western Sahara. This contravenes the declarations of the UN determinations made by the international tribunal of justness, the place of most European states and the base held by AU ( Zoubir, 2008 ) .
Harmonizing to Zoubir ( 1999 ) despite its announced neutrality in the struggle the US has provided political and material support to morocco. During the president Bush ‘s term of office the policy of the US toward the struggle was evenhanded than other old governments for a figure of grounds. First there has been an improved relation between the US and Algeria which was antecedently viewed as opposed to the involvement of the US. The 2nd ground is that there has been increased attending of the Congress towards the struggle which has led to the alteration in attitude of the Democrats and the republicans and eventually the US has ever supported the UN peace program since its amplification in 1998.The Clinton disposal until late 1996 had favored Morocco and its wants to busy the Western Sahara district. During this clip the Department Of State and besides that of Defense stated that incorporating Morocco and Western Sahara was the best solution. Furthermore its involuntariness to go on funding the operations of UN Security Council clearly demonstrated their deficiency of resoluteness to convey the struggle to an terminal.
Harmonizing to Carnegie gift ( 2011 ) the US has be taking multiple attacks to Western Sahara struggle. In 1975 it played a major diplomatic function where it pressed Spain to accept the Madrid pact and carry through the Rabat ‘s demand. However from 1977 the US has been keeping a impersonal base towards the struggle. During the term of office of president Carter the US froze merchandising of weaponries to Morocco and the ground was that Morocco had broken the military understanding that disallowed the usage of arms from US outside the internationally recognized boundary lines. Relationss between Morocco and the US recovered during Reagan disposal which saw Western Sahara conflict portion of the cold War. It termed Polisario an ally of the Soviet although the Us took a positive neutrality which meant it was giving, military support to morocco but non political. For illustration in 1980s the US stopped endorsing the call for a referendum by Morocco, failed to force Morocco to develop a political solution to the struggle and did non support their instance in the international sphere ( Carnegie gift, 2011 ) .
Morocco ‘s strategic s significance to the US was lost when the cold war ended and this diminution of American involvement in the Western Sahara struggle although during the presidential term of George H. bush it was clear that the US continued to keep a impersonal base towards the Western Sahara struggle. In an effort to rock the US place towards the Western Sahara struggle Morocco was back uping the alliance forces during the first gulf war and indicated that it was ready to intercede the Arab and Israel to assist the peace procedure which had been initiated by the US. Morocco did non win since the US stated that the Western Sahara issue could merely be handled by the United Nations. This base by the US was to reaffirm that it was recognizing international legitimacy, and seek to maintain Morocco which was a geostrategic ally in Maghreb part while guaranting that the US economic involvement in Algeria were non harmed ( Carnegie gift, 2011 ) .
In 2003 there was a displacement in US policy when a statement was released indicating that the US was back uping the Bakers program which was allowing liberty to western Sahara under the Moroccan Kingdom or diving of the western Sahara district. However the disposal of president shrub was speedy to indicate that the colony that was to be made was non traveling to be imposed on Rabat this was because the US saw that the struggle was intertwined with cooperation of Morocco towards the battle against terrorist act.
To set up the importance of the struggle the bases taken by the Congress and white should be considered. There are those who support Morocco due the function it plays in the battle against terrorist act and in the struggles in the Middle East and the democracy found in the land. There are others who support rights to self-government of the people of western and disregard the historic that have existed between the US and Morocco ( Foreign Policy in Focus, 1998 ) . They hence criticize the maltreatment of human rights and the development of the natural resources found in the Western Sahara district. The Bush disposal changed its base signifier clip to clip. For illustration John Bolton who was the US embassador to the UN had threaten to coerce the UN to retreat its mission in western Sahara and even promote the difference in Western Sahara to chapter six from chapter four which could hold forced the parties in the struggle to follow with the declarations made by the UN or face rough effects. However after erstwhile it resumed to its impersonal place. The fluctuation of the place of the US in the Western Sahara struggle is aimed at maintains good dealingss with the two Alliess which are Algeria and Morocco. It besides presses the UN to hold a uninterrupted engagement in the Western Sahara struggle ( Foreign Policy in Focus, 1998 ) .
The Western Sahara struggle illustrates how the procedure of democratisation which the US promotes has been constrained in the battle against terrorist act. The US uses a policy which states that either a state is with the US or with the terrorists in their war against terrorist. This has seen the US support governments in the Western Sahara part which use force in order to keep power. Due to the insecurity that has been brought by the terrorist act the US has tried to strength the ties with states in the Maghreb part. This has made the US better its dealingss with Morocco and Algeria who are seen as geo-strategic Alliess ( Foreign Policy in Focus, 1998 ) .The relationship between Morocco is longstanding one which dates back to 1787. The peace understanding between the two states is the longest understanding that US have maintained with any state of the universe. Morocco has received more assistance from US compared to other Arab states. Since the war in Western Sahara began, Morocco has received one million millions of dollars in footings assistance from the United States ( Foreign Policy in Focus, 1998 ) .
Relationss with Western Sahara
Foreign Policy in Focus ( 1998 ) provinces that when Morocco invaded Western Sahara 70 five states of the universe recognized it as an independent province. Polisario stated that it was an independent province and the US has since avoided any close diplomatic dealingss with representative from polisario and has besides force per unit area other states to halt recognizing Western Sahara as a province. It has failed to acknowledge polisario as a cardinal participant in the struggle and does non therefore see the positions of Polisario in the procedure of deciding the struggle. The united stases should develop a foreign policy that is traveling to coerce Morocco to follow with the declarations made by the UN coerce them to form a referendum that is just and internationally supervised. They should besides set up good diplomatic dealingss with Western Sahara in order to beef up peace procedure.
Impact of US Policy on Western Sahara
Foreign Policy in Focus ( 1998 ) observes that the US support of Morocco invasion and subsequent business in Western Sahara is a manner doing territorial aggression legitimate and this is a unsafe case in point. This can take to political instability both in the Western Sahara and in the whole part. The US supports the Moroccan bossy authorities. The failure of the US to move against the invasion of Western Sahara by Morocco has set a unsafe case in point to possible attackers in other parts of the universe. For illustration Indonesia launched its invasion in east Timor. This is because the US started the gulf war since it was against such an invasion made by Morocco in the gulf part. Its support for Morocco therefore raises inquiries on the grounds why it launched a war with lay waste toing effects in Iraq in 1990s. It besides raises inquiries over the base it has against those who violated the declarations of the UN.
The United Kingdom
The UK merely like other members of the European Union does non acknowledge Western Sahara as an independent province. Morocco has been opposing any effort by the European Union which the United Kingdom is a member to decide the Western Sahara struggle. This has prevented the United Kingdom from playing an active function in the procedure of deciding the Western Sahara ( Popescu, 2011 ) . Although the UK does non play an active function in the struggle contributes to the attempts of the UN in seeking to happen a solution.