Child and young person development

Newborn babies will have next to no control over their own bodies. Very small movements such as sucking and grasping these are all dependent on a series of reflexes; they do these in order to survive. By the end of their first year they would of gain more advanced mobility.

Gross motor skills- for using their larger muscles to being into the sitting position without any assistance. And more fine motor skills- for using much smaller muscles like fingers and toes to being able to pass objects from hand to hand.

In their second year babies/toddlers will still continue to development stronger muscles and continue to grow quickly. By this age they might be able walk and they will have more control on these movements and maybe able to feed themselves. They will have much enjoyment in playing games and toys such as playing ball, climbing on furniture or on the stairs. By the third year they might be able to dress themselves maybe with little assistance from others. And for fine motor skills with holding and drawing with pencils and pens. Also by this age they should have full ability for feeding themselves. As they continue to grow to grow so does their confidence as well.

3-7 years
By this age children would of already started school and therefore will be able to show many different co-ordinated movements. Still be growing as a small person in confidence as a result. They should be improving skills already acquired so far but they will learn to have more control on fine motor skills such as using scissors for cutting and a pen for writing. As they continue to develop their gross motor skills will be more refined in more active activities such as running, playing sports and with use of larger equipment.

7-12 years
By this age group children will still continue to grow and train them skills. And now should have interest and hobbies, in which they will enjoy doing them. They will start to become more experienced in some areas a great example of this could be playing a particular sport such as football or even dance. In these activities much finer movement might be needed and this will be required for playing an musical instrument. As from this early age girls just might have started some signs of puberty, but boys usually start this later on.

12-16 years
This is when boys usually start puberty where girls will have now to have regular periods. There might be a large variety in height and strength. Boys will tenders to be taller than most girls on average.

16-19 years
This is when young people are now classed as young adults. Most girls would of now reached physical movement. Where on the other hand boys will still grow and change into their mid 20s.

Communication and intellectual development
Children will learn and develop at different stages. Language is a link to learning. They pick things up from their own experiences and from opportunities that they might be given from a very early age. Both communication and intellectual development can be seem from certain tasks, and then will show own strengths and abilities by those tasks. People will have many different ideas/ways about the learning development of the way children learn. 0-3 years

There have been many studies shown, that in cases children who have been neglected from an early age; who don’t spend time with adults to those who have time spending time with adults. Those children who have been neglected will find it hard to learn skills and won’t have effective communication in later life. Even though babies are unable to grasp what is being said to them. They will listen and will enjoy songs and dance movement. By the end of their first year children will start to communicate through odd words then will start to put one and two words together. As they develop so will their vocabulary will increase quite quickly, to on average most children at this age of two will know about 200 words. When they reach 2-3 years old they will still make errors with in the correct grammar when speaking.

3-7 years
As children start nurseries and schools as they become more social, they will gain a wider range of encounters, by this they will start to increase the number of parses that are well known and expressing. As they develop more they will start to ask a lot of questions such as “why” and “what”. Talking in past and further tenses will become easier and will be spoken with more confidence. And will look for approval from adults when starting a task.

7-12 years
By this age children will become fluent speakers on their main language(s). Their reading and writing abilities will become more developed. They will start to deliberate ideas they may have. They will start to show learning in more abstract terms. They will start to grasp information and will start in a more intellectual way.

12-18 years
By this age children would be starting or already started high school and will know what they like and dislike, favourite or least favourite subjects at school. And more interest will be shown in these liked subjects and activities and therefore be more absorbed in these. By this age children will be getting ready to select their chosen GCSE’s and A’ levels they would like to accomplish. If young adults lack confidence this maybe with the way it is being truant. Every young adult will feel the need to belong and feel good with what they doing and within them.

16-19 years
This is the time that most young adults will be leaving education and will start thinking about careers or university. And from them subjects they have chosen what qualifications they have gained. In these areas of interest, strength will still carry on to develop as they move on.

Social, emotional and behavioural development
To become confided independent adults, as children we learn and develop from watching and relating to others. By being social from an early age we then learn the rights and wrongs and what is normal for acceptable behaviour. In order to develop they will need to feel safe and in a secure setting environment to develop into a confided strong minded adult who advises their best ability.

0-3 years
As from every early age babies will gain a strong bond or attachment to which they spread most time with e.g. parent or carers. Though this social development as time goes by they will want to start to do for themselves and though disturbance will or may have tantrums of some kind.

3-7years
Children will still continue to find their identities. They will adore starting to play with others and with using imaginative play they will then be able to socialise. It is vital that they learn boundaries and grade lines, and why they are there. Children will still long for adult approval when given responsibility.

7-12years
Children will start to gain long term friends and come to be more settled in these relationships. They will be able to accomplished many forms of different activities and learn to solve problems. As they gain more experience they will still need to be reassurance and will quickly learn to be aware of what others think of them. All children should be given plenty of praise and encouragement to help them find themselves and nurture.

12-16years
As children become into young adults there will be a lot of change inside and out, with various different signs of maturity and may become vulnerable. Therefore children will still need adult guidance from many ways. Even though they are will spending more time with other peeps; they will show some signs of childish behaviour. This age group will find themselves under pressure or stress of growing up, doing well in exams at school and what will or might be expected from them. They therefore might be unaware on how to behave in different circumstances that might occur.

16-19years
As they leave education and entre adulthood they will require guidance from others. As they start to entre careers and jobs thy will have none or very little experience. This will influence on their emotional development and will have a knock on effect to the way they interact with others. And therefore adults should understand to their needs.

1.2
From a child having an ability or disability to do something can have an effect on their development as a whole. A child’s development could be slip into groups, but they interlink with one another. If a child doesn’t develop well in a subject or an area it can affect many different ones. For example if a child is overweight not only can disrupt with their physical development, it could also have a huge impact on their social and emotional. If other peers tease them about either being overweight or by not being able to do some actives, it could make them less social with making friends. Then the child could find it humiliating, embarrassing and become self-conscious and this will affect their emotional side by low self-esteem. But if a child is talented at something it could also affect motions of development.

Physical development Social, emotional and behavioural development – Fine motor skill & hand-eye coordination – sharing mealtimes with one another – taking turns

COOKING

Communication and intellectual development
Measuring quantities
Deciding on appropriate menus
Using language to describe foods
Learning how food and nutrition affect growth and health
Sitting down to eat together and conversing with one another

2. Understand the kinds of influences that affect children and young people’s development

2.1
There are many different influences that could effect on a child’s development. These developments are subjective by a range of factors such as their backgrounds, their health and their environment. All these influences will have impact on different areas.

Pupils’ background and family environment
Many families will go through change within a child’s time at school these may be due to arrange of different environment within family life different cultures and circumstances and school maybe unaware of any changes. These may be a loss of a family member, illness, moving house or even moving to a new country. Anyone of these could have a huge impact on a child’s life by their emotional development and might have a knock on effect on their intellectual development, then this could change a child’s behaviour and to learn as a factor.

Pupils Health
It is important that adults to be aware of any health problems that arise. If a child/young adult suffers from poor health or as a disability or impairment. This may restrict their development opportunities. A great example is if a child is overweight due to a medical conditions might be less able to take part in some activities. This may start to affect their physical development; this will then affect social activities. The knock on effect to again emotional will also be impacted. So with adults well aware they should be aware of conditions & circumstances and that the right amount of support can be given.

Poverty and deprivation
These are likely to have a extreme influence on a child’s development, it’s proven that if a child comes from a deprived background; they are less likely to achieve well in school. They might find it hard due to lack of opportunities due to parents finding it too hard to manage their needs. By this it will have a turn on impacting on all areas of their development, or lack of it, by this the child will respond differently to situations than others.

Personal choices
As children turn in to young adults they will start to make their own choices on life, friendships and activities and so on. They will need advice and support from adults to enable then to make the right choices that are right for them.

Looked after/ care status
If a child is in care, this will have an impact on their development in many different ways. Each child should be monitored closely for any change by having regular meetings. This is too able to meet their needs of that child. And to make sure they are making expected levels of progress. For where any concerns that arise they can be addressed straight away.

Education
Children learn at different stages; but some children may start school without any previous education. Alternatively that child may come from home schooling environment or maybe just a different way of schooling altogether. Therefore the way o child could be taught can be very well different. So as a result that child may need some extra support till they have settled in.

2.2
Anyone who works with or raises children, they need to have a solid understanding of a child development and what makes that child tick. As it is very important to know what is normal for that child and what’s not. By looking out for any problems, we will be able to offer the care and support needed to get that child back on track. For example, if a child is suffering from a break up in the family; it can be very stressful for that child and this could have an influence on their development as they could become very upset, lash out, could stop eating or could stop talking altogether. It is at most importance that the child feels they’re not at fault. There is certain problem that arises that needs to be disclosed with the school so that safety, integrity and respect on how the issue might impact on the child. In effect is to be proactive to let the child’s teacher know the following problems can stave off more severe issues, that including behaviour problems, poor grades or having difficulty to adjust to the situation the child’s family will be facing. The teacher should inform the child’s parents/carers of any concerns they feel they might have. The sooner the parents are aware the easier it will be to step in and help given any additional support that may be needed.

3. Understand the potential effects of transitions on children and young people’s development.

3.1
Most children/ young adults may experience transitions. This may be long or short term. Transitions is known as a significant stage or experience in the life this could have an effect on their behaviour and development. Some children go through transitions when starting school for the first time or changing from one school to another, moving house can also have an impact on the child, in that they will have to make new friends. Many children make these transitions without prior personal experience. This can seem appear to them as a daunting list of ‘firsts’. For example a child’s first day at nursery or school; first night away from mum and dad etc. All these could affect the different areas of development.

3.2
Sometimes transition can happen that can’t be prepared for, and it is important that the school have polices and carry out the right procedure for dealing in these seduction. If there isn’t a procedure to follow that it can be quite different to deal with. Sometimes it can be over looked when the school is informed of any changes; but if we notice any changes within a child who is behaving uncharacteristically it is important that others are informed. Bereavement can have a huge impact on a child, Even if it is expected. Again the right procedure needs to be followed. Parental separation is likely to happen to a child at the school. And we will need to be sensitive when speaking to parents about this and the effects its having on the child. If a new member is being introduced, or if the amount of contact with a parent changes, this can also have a big impact on the child. Again sensually is required again when speaking about this matter. New siblings – this can found to be difficult to cope with. Emotional and behavioural development can change due to vying for parental attention, maybe for the first time. Moving house – a child can find moving house to an unknown school or area to be very upsetting. It is likely that additional support should be given to help settle them. Change of carer – if a child that as moved a number of times this could again be upsetting and the child can become unsettled if they have a change of a career. The school should have both support and advice needed from social services. They both will need to work closely to help support that child. Illness or injury – we need to come to term with it and any changes in circumstances, even though these could be their own or loved one.

3.3
It would be great if any advance notice could be given if a child/ group will be going through a transition so that the right opportunity to support them when or how needed. Some find it important to talk to people about their feeling during these periods by having positive relationships available. A child or group of children that are going through a transition may experience different ways. This may be:

Become attention seeking
Show signs of uncharacteristic behaviour
Be very anxious
Become quite and withdrawn
If a child doesn’t receive any support other development could also be affected; by social and their emotional development. Children could find
some transitions potentially traumatic.