Blessing Of Diamonds To African Economies Politics Essay

Africa is the universes largest manufacturer of diamonds, bring forthing every bit much as 50 % of planetary production. To day of the month, Africa has produced over 75 % , in value, of the universes diamonds with more than 1.9 billion carats worth an estimated $ US 158 billion mined. Angola, Botswana and South Africa are taking manufacturers of diamonds.

Mining activities are centered around South Central Africa, with diamonds being produced chiefly from kimberlite mines ( South Africa, Angola, DRC, Ghana, Tanzania, Lesotho and Botswana ) , followed by alluvial dredging operations ( Angola, CAR, Namibia and South Africa ) and offshore marine diamond activities ( South Africa and Namibia ) .

Diamond production in Africa is a approval because the economic system of the taking diamond bring forthing states in Africa has addition hiking their economic system and their interaction with other states of the universe. Below are some of the fact about Africa diamond bring forthing states and their interaction with other junior mining company:

Sierra Leone is really rich in diamonds and other minerals, diamonds were discovered in Sierra leone in 1930

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Bo, Sierra Leone, 1998. UNICEF / HQ98-0578 / Giacomo Pirozzi

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“ Diamonds are everlastingly ” it is frequently said. But lives are non.

We must save people the ordeal of war, mutilations and decease for the interest of struggle diamonds. ”

Martin Chungong Ayafor, Chairman of the Sierra Leone Panel of Experts

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SOUTH AFRICA.

South Africa produced 11.1 Mct in 2003, chiefly from De Beers operated mines and offshore marine operations. Several foerign junior excavation companies are doing good advancement on working South Africa ‘s moneymaking inland alluvial resources, every bit good as rhenium evaluate the shallow Marine resources located along the West Coast of South Africa.

Botswana

unfastened dramatis personae operations, which produce about all of Botswana ‘s 26.5 Mct per twelvemonth. In 2003 increased its Botswana has the strongest economic system in Africa, and besides has the highest GDP / individual in Africa. The dependance on diamond excavation activities on Botswana ‘s economic system is great. Debswana ( De Beers Botswana ) is a joint company with the Botswana Government. Debswana presently operate three big production to 30.4 Mct.

Namibia

Diamond excavation is one of Namibia ‘s chief export merchandises, bring forthing 1.4 Mct in 2003, a bulk of which is produced by De Beers ‘ Namibian subordinate, Namdeb. However, new manufacturers in Namibia are Canadian listed Namibian Mining Corporation ( Namco ) which has made impressive advancement with its Marine excavation operations. Recent betterments in Marine excavation methods, led by De Beers Marine, Namco and DFI/Trans Hex, will do these operations more moneymaking. The full coastline of Namibia is presently being explored / exploited for marine diamonds sedimentations. With the rapid inflow of diamond geographic expedition companies, in peculiar Marine operators, Namibia has legislated a new Diamond Act, which will further command and modulate the production and sale of unsmooth diamonds

ANGOLA.

Endiama, Angola ‘s province tally company still produces a bulk of Angola ‘s diamonds, although big sums of production are still being produced by artisinal workers. Several foreign companies are involved in the development or geographic expedition of possible kimberlitic and alluvial sedimentations. Following the recent peace enterprises in Angola, the security state of affairs has improved well and Angola ‘s diamond potency can once once more be appraised. Angola produced merely over 3 Mct in 2003.

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO ( DRC )

Diamond production from the DRC continues with 19.7 Mct being produced in 2001 doing the DRC one of Africa ‘s largest manufacturers of diamonds after Botswana. Artisinal production contributes more than half of the DRC ‘s production.

Offshore/Marine Diamond Mining

Offshore, or, marine diamond excavation development and geographic expedition have risen in the last few old ages owing to a rise in the diamond monetary value, and in the coming of this, it has gained economic viability.

The above are some of the African ‘s states that as a consequence of diamond production have increase their economic potency and pull some major excavation companies into their country and thereby increase their relationship with some other states that is non Africans. It is a approval because of the major possible addition in economic system and their relationship state of affairs among others states and the addition of industrial activities in the countries. Anything that is blessing most has some facet of expletive in it in order to equilibrate the advantage and disadvantage. Below is some of the expletive of diamond production in Africa.

DIAMOND AS A CURSE TO AFRICA.

The addition of force, illegal smuggling, and wars in some of the major diamond bring forthing states has made the approval of diamond production in Africa turns to expletives, eg

However, there are no better known symbol of the nexus between African resources and struggle than diamonds, hence called “ blood diamonds. ” It is because they are little, diamonds can easy be smuggled and transported. In the universe markets, the really high monetary value diamonds fetch can purchase so many weaponries and pay combatants or otherwise prolong the activities of the military officers.

During the Sierra Leone ‘s long civil war back in the twenty-four hours, the most ferocious combat was over control of that state ‘s diamond Fieldss. The Diamonds which were smuggled from Sierra Leone besides helped in the funding of one side in the war in neighboring Liberia, as did illegal development of Liberian lumber and Fe ore. During the war in Angola, each side already had a beginning of gross – the authorities of Angola controlled the offshore oil Fieldss, while the UNITA motion sustained itself for twosome of old ages via illegal diamond excavation.

So many thanks to the runs by the international non-governmental organisations ( NGOs ) and broad media coverage of the phenomenon, the Kimberley Process was nevertheless, launched in the twelvemonth 2000. It is an UN-backed strategy aimed at halting the illegal diamond trading and besides other treasures from struggle zones, with tonss of diamond-producing and -trading states now belonging to the enterprise. Under the agreement, all diamond cargos from take parting states must be accompanied by a certification of genuineness stipulating their beginning. Experts at the chief diamond exchanges in Belgium and elsewhere carry on scientific trials of the diamonds ‘ composing to seek to verify where they came from. Participating states pledge to penalize lawbreakers. UN peacekeepers

patrol against diamond and gold runners on Lake Kivu, in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

In some states, the Kimberley Process has had an impact. In Sierra Leone, merely a mere $ 1.2 manganese in diamonds was lawfully exported in 1999, but by 2005 the figure had risen to $ 140 manganese, as the enfranchisement strategy encouraged more mineworkers to sell their diamonds to authorised traders. But the procedure has major defects. Experts estimate that between $ 30 manganese and $ 160 mn worth of diamonds are still smuggled out of Sierra Leone yearly.

The illegal export of diamonds from northern Cote d’Ivoire is another indicant of the restrictions. Unless such jobs are resolved, warns Global Witness, an protagonism NGO, the Kimberley Process hazards going “ little more than a paper-pushing exercising. ” Partially in reaction to the state of affairs in Cote d’Ivoire, a 15 November plenary meeting of the participants in the Kimberley Process agreed to closely supervise all diamond exports from West Africa, with proficient information on geological beginnings required in each cargo out of the part.

One built-in failing in the Kimberley Process, argues SaferAfrica, a South African NGO, is that it is voluntary, depending on the willing cooperation of authoritiess, companies and diamond traders. Not all are so willing. Along with other participants in OSAA ‘s Cairo meeting, SaferAfrica recommended beef uping the ability of authoritiess, NGOs, civil society groups and others to more efficaciously supervise conformity with the enfranchisement strategy and urged authoritiess to punish and punish lawbreakers.

WEALTH SHARING.

Besides some of the job that affect Africans diamond production and other resources in Africa is the manner of sharing the wealth, which is the major cause of war and struggles.

Even if authoritiess are able to pull off their natural resources more transparently and efficaciously, that will hold merely a limited impact if the benefits are non besides shared more widely within African societies. Paradoxically, many countries that have plentiful oil, diamonds or other minerals are besides highly destitute, from the Niger Delta to Kono, the bosom of Sierra Leone ‘s diamond Fieldss.

Mbuji-Mayi in cardinal DRC is sometimes called the “ diamond capital of the universe. ” But the metropolis itself is little more than a slum. Its state, Kasai Oriental, has high rates of illiteracy and infant mortality, it lacks electricity and 60 per cent of its kids under five suffer malnutrition. Meanwhile, a few Congolese and foreign diamond merchandisers display impossible wealth. Such unfairnesss contribute greatly to societal and political tensenesss across Africa, and do it easier for armed groups to mobilise local protagonists.

To counter poorness and inequality, the Cairo experts ‘ group strongly urged African authoritiess and excavation and oil companies to guarantee that a greater portion of natural-resource wealth is used for societal services and development programmes nationally, every bit good as to straight profit local communities.

In a few instances, the construct of gross sharing has featured conspicuously in peace understandings. As portion of an agreement that ended a long civil war in southern Sudan in 2003, the cardinal authorities and the rebel Sudan People ‘s Liberation Army worked out a elaborate agreement in which the two sides would portion grosss from oil.

In Nigeria, all 36 provinces received approximately equal allotments of national oil grosss until 2000, when the portion for the oil-producing Niger Delta provinces was increased to 13 per cent in an attempt to still local grudges. But most of the money went to elites in the metropoliss and some was lost through corruptness, so that few hapless occupants noticed any existent betterment. As a consequence, demands have escalated. The authoritiess of the oil-producing provinces are now inquiring that the portion be increased to 20-25 per cent, while a authorities commission proposed in March 2006 that it be raised to 18 per cent.

In an attempt to bring forth some good will, foreign oil companies active in the Niger Delta have besides straight financed.

BREAKING THE LINK OF CURSE TO BLESSINGS. As portion of their broader attempts to procure peace and development on the continent, Africans and their international spouses are concentrating progressively on ways to interrupt the links between struggle and natural wealth. Whether as objects of competition or beginnings of military funding, notes UN Under-Secretary-General and Special Adviser on Africa Legwaila Joseph Legwaila, natural resources have played a “ negative function ” in many of Africa ‘s bloodiest wars, from Sierra Leone and Liberia to Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo ( DRC ) .

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A 13-year-old male child carries a poke of Earth and stone at a diamond mine in Mbuji-Mayi, the Congolese “ diamond capital. ”

To foreground the job, Mr. Legwaila ‘s Office of the Special Adviser on Africa ( OSAA ) organized a three-day experts ‘ group meeting in Cairo, Egypt, in June 2006. The experts – who included representatives of authoritiess, the UN and other regional and international organisations, civil society groups, faculty members and the private sector – recommended steps to beef up international and national controls to forestall natural resources from financing warring cabals. They besides suggested stairss to cut down domestic struggles over entree to natural wealth, including “ responsible, merely and economically productive resource direction ” by African authoritiess, with “ just distribution of wealth to all stakeholders, in peculiar local communities. ”

With such an attack, the experts argued, the development of natural resources can be better directed towards bettering society as a whole, by cut downing competition and transforming natural wealth “ from a peace liability to a peace plus. ”

The presence of a valuable natural resource is non, by itself, a “ expletive ” destined to motivate struggle.

Decision: From the points discourse above, it is a fact that African is the universe ‘s largest diamond manufacturer irrespective of their force, war, illegal smuggling etc that affect the people in the country. With the aid of NGO ‘s and others the force that is break outing the production of diamond as been deliverances in some of the states and excavation companies are still runing thereby taking to increase in the economic system of the states. This study concludes that diamond is a approval to Africa with the position of the fact that there is an addition in the economic system state of affairs and the major facet of struggle around the continent authorities has created different manner within and outside the continent to keep peace and other with better security state of affairs being put in topographic point.

The truth is that diamonds should be a approval to Africa by and large because diamonds are everlastingly, they are n’t similar worlds that can finally decease one twenty-four hours so is non a ground for wars and crises and smuggling because it lives everlastingly.